This episode marks number 5 within our journey to explore all realms that Ergo offers – and as usual aims to leave no stone unturned.

For today’s show we have exclusive company, Dionysis Zindros, to assist us in explaining the technical landscape of Non-Interactive Proofs of Proof-of-Work, to which are more commonly abbreviated as NiPoPoWs.

Dionysis takes a diligent approach for the Ergo Cast with an elaborate rundown of what Non-Interactive Proofs of Proof-of-Work truly are. Furthermore, Dionysis evaluates the operation, implementation, as well as impact that his primitive delivers upon. Furthermore, we unveil a brand-new piece of research that -as of yet- has never been shared publicly: log-space mining.

Sit back, relax, and be prepared to absorb a thorough discussion upon a pinnacle of blockchain technology.


Introduction & Greeting

Thoughts Upon Ergo

Motivations for NiPoPoWs

What is a Proof, for a Proof of Work?

Proof Size & Suitability


Blockchain Sampling

Applicability in Proof of Stake

Hybrid Consensus Models

Advantages of NiPoPoW over PoPoS

Cross-Chain Communication

Are NiPoPoWs Fungible?

The FlyClient Primitive

Logarithmic-Space Mining

Further Sampling Methods

Looking at Velvet Forks

What About Sidechains?

Operation of Interoperability

Cross-Chain ICOs & Dapps

Future of Interoperability

Trustless Oracles

Closure & Outro


Some of the pieces linked below are research-heavy and may seem daunting to venture through. However, reading only the abstract & glancing at a handful of chapters across all papers will add comfortability within deeper topics and assists in a thorough understanding of what we discussed in today’s episode.

Non-Interactive Proofs of Proof-of-Work
Non-Interactive Proofs of Proof-of-Work Technical Paper
Ergo’s Consensus Protocol
The Extended UTXO Model
Simplified Payment Verification (SPV)
Generic Superlight Clients for Permissionless Blockchains
A Gas-Efficient Superlight Bitcoin Client in Solidity
Compact Storage of Superblocks for NiPoPoW Applications
Grinding Attack (Precomputation Attack/Randomness Buying Attack) [Page 3]
Coda: Decentralized Cryptocurrency at Scale
TwinsCoin: A Cryptocurrency via Proof-of-Work and Proof-of-Stake
FlyClient – Super-Light Clients for Cryptocurrencies
What are zk-SNARKs?
What are zk-STARKs?
What are Merkle Trees?
A Wild Velvet Fork Appears: Inclusive Blockchain Protocol Changes in Practice
Proof-of-Stake Sidechains
Proof-of-Work Sidechains
Smart Contract Derivatives


Bulletproofs: Short Proofs for Confidential Transactions and More
Bulletproofs+: Shorter Proofs for Privacy-Enhanced Distributed Ledger
Chain Interoperability
Proofs of Proofs-of-Work with Sublinear Complexity
Stake-Bleeding Attacks on Proof-of-Stake Blockchains
Everything is a Race and Nakamoto Always Wins
Proofs of Proofs-of-Work GitHub Repository